From this side Cthulhu Cultist ugly Christmas shirt, there is only one method to get a result from a function called: the return mechanism. If you want to get a side effect from the function, i.e. that the manipulations survive their lifespan, you need to make the called function act on a variable that survives. You can do it in other ways, for instance referencing global variables, but a handy way to perform this task through formal parameters is calling by address. What you really do is pass by value the address of a variable, or differently said a pointer to it, but inside the called function you change the variable pointed to, not the pointer itself. The problem here is Congress doesn’t want to fund a border wall. Only the President wants it, and he doesn’t get to write laws. All the President can do is veto laws he opposes. So the President can stop Congress from doing something, but he has no power to force them to do anything. Now, what I just said isn’t completely true. The power to veto bills can be used as indirect leverage to demand that Congress pass legislation the President wants. He does this by refusing to sign bills Congress passes until Congress gives him what he wants. That’s what’s happening now. The government is shut down because Congress doesn’t want to pass funding for a border wall, and the President refuses to sign a routine appropriations bill to fund the government until it includes money for a wall. It’s an impasse.
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